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Research Articles

Below is a collection of research articles on chiropractic treatment, car crash, nutrition and general health.


  1. Patient Evaluations of Low Back Pain Care from Family Physicians and Chiropractors. West J Med 1989 March150:351-355. MacCornack et al.
  2. Does altered biomechanics cause marrow edema? M E Schweitzer and L M White. Radiology March 1996 Volume 198, Issue 3.
  3. Pending Spondylolysis and/or Spondylolisthesis: What's It All Mean? Dr. Terry R. Yochum, D.C., D.A.C.B.R., Fellow, A.C.C.R., and Alicia M. Yochum, D.C., R.N. The American Chiropractor February 2013 p. 14.
  4. The Epidemiology of Chronic Rheumatism Atlas of Standard Radiographs.The Department of Rheumatology and Medical Illustration University of Manchester and Manchester Royal Infirmary and the Empire Rheumatism Council’s Field Unit. Volume 2. iv46-iv72.
  5. Prevalence of Herniated Intervertebral Discs of the Cervical Spine in Asymptomatic Subjects Using MRI Scans: A Qualitative Systematic Review. Journal of Whiplash & Related Disorders 2006; Vol. 5(1):5-13. D’Antoni AV et al.
  6. Lumbar disc nomenclature: version 2.0 Recommendations of the combined task forces of the North American Spine Society, the American Society of Spine Radiology and the American Society of Neuroradiology. The Spine Journal 14 (2014) 2525–2545. Fardon DF et al.
  7. Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2015; 36:811–16. Brinjikji W et al.
  8. Long-term follow-up of a randomized clinical trial assessing the efficacy of medication, acupuncture, and spinal manipulation for chronic mechanical spinal pain syndromes. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 2005; 28(1):3-11. Muller R et al.

Car Crash

  1. Chronic neck pain and whiplash. A case-control study. Pain Res Manage 2006; 11(2):79-83. Freeman et al.
  2. Correlating crash severity with injury risk, injury severity, and long-term symptoms in low velocity motor vehicle collisions. Med Sci Monit 2005; 11(10): RA316-321. Croft AC, and Freeman MD. 
  3. Low Back Injuries in Low Velocity Rear Impact Collisions. Consumer Attorneys Of California, 2009, 29-33. Croft AC.
  4. Rolling Forward Under Idle: Speed, Acceleration, and Time. SOB Defense. Croft AC.
  5. Whiplash Injuries and Low Speed Collisions: Confessions of an Accident Reconstructionist. Forum Consumer Attorneys of California 1997; p10-15. Croft AC.
  6. Data and Methods for Estimating the Severity of Minor Impacts. Macinnis Engineering Associates Ltd. p139-174. Bailey MN et al.
  7. Neck pain and head restraint position relative to the driver’s head in rear-end collisions. Accident Analysis and Prevention 32 (2000) 287–297. Chapline JF et al.
  8. The RID2 biofidelic rear impact dummy: a validation study using human subjects in low speed rear impact full scale crash tests. Neck injury criterion (NIC). Spine Research Institute of San Diego 2005. Croft AC et al.
  9. Basic Biomechanics: Forces at C0-C1 With A Head Forward Position. Croft AC.
  10. Minor Rear Aligned Crashes in the United States: A Pilot Study of 98 Crashes. IRCOBI Conference 2008; p367-379. Bartsch A et al.
  11. Significant spinal injury resulting from low-level accelerations: a case series of roller coaster injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:2126-30. Freeman MD et al.
  12. A review and methodologic critique of the literature refuting whiplash syndrome. Spine 1999;24(1):86-96. Freeman MD et al.
  13. Medical Examination and Testing in Auto Cases. Anatomy of a Personal Injury Lawsuit: 4th Edition. p44-47.


  1. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991. Artemis P Simopoulos.
  2. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Nutrients 2013, 5, 2901-2923. Artemis P. Simopoulos
  3. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81:341 to 354 Cordain et al.
  4. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake. Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224 Anson et al.
  5. Dietary Patterns and Longevity: Expanding the Blue Zones. Circulation. 2008; 118:214-215 Lawrence J. Appel
  6. Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2002; 106: 2747-2757. Kris-Etherton et al.
  7. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:10 Daley et al.

General Health

  1. Low back pain of mechanical origin: randomized comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment. BMJ. Jun 2, 1990; 300(6737): 1431 to 1437. T W Meade et al.
  2. The Results of Radial Shockwave Therapy. Canadian Chiropractor Magazine. Dr. Robert Gordon, MD, FRCS(C)
  3. Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure: Results of a United States Multicenter, Prospective Study. Hepatology Vol 42 No 6 2005 Larson et al.
  4. Forensic Applications and Levels of Validity in Manual vs. Computerized Muscle Testing. Croft AC.